Absolute advantage refers to an individual's, company's, region's, or country's ability to produce more of a good or service per unit of time with the same number of inputs as its competitors, or the same quantity of a good or service per unit of time with fewer inputs.
Absolute advantage can be attained by using a more efficient process or delivering a product or service at a lower absolute cost per unit with fewer inputs.
Remember these key points:
When a producer can supply a good or service in greater quantity for the same price, or in the same volume for a lower price, it has an unbeatable edge over its rival.
Adam Smith created the concept "absolute advantage," which can offer the foundation for large benefits from trade between producers of various commodities with distinct absolute advantages.
Producers that have distinct absolute advantages can always gain more through specialisation, division of labour, and trade than they might by producing and consuming separately.
On the other hand, comparative advantage refers to the ability to produce goods and services at a lower opportunity cost, rather than necessarily at a better volume or quality.
The concept of "absolute advantage" was coined by Adam Smith, and it can provide the foundation for huge gains through commerce between producers of various commodities with distinct absolute advantages.
Producers with distinct absolute advantages can always benefit more from specialisation, division of labour, and commerce than they might by producing and consuming independently.
Comparative advantage, on the other hand, refers to the ability to produce goods and services at a lower opportunity cost than competitors, but necessarily at a higher volume or quality.
Smith stated that concentrating in products in which they each have an absolute advantage and then trading those products can benefit all countries, as long as they each have at least one product in which they have an absolute edge over other countries.
The concept of absolute advantage explains why individuals, businesses, and governments should trade with one another.
Both entities can benefit from the transaction because they each have advantages in manufacturing particular commodities and services.
Smith's claim that specialisation, the division of labour, and subsequent commerce lead to an overall improvement in prosperity from which all can benefit is based on this mutual advantage from trade.
Comparative Advantage vs. Absolute Advantage
In contrast to absolute advantage, comparative advantage occurs when one producer has a lower opportunity cost to create a good or service than another.
The potential gains that an individual, investor, or organisation misses out on when choosing one option over another are known as opportunity costs.
Only when each producer has an absolute advantage in producing a good does absolute advantage lead to unambiguous gains from specialisation and trade.
If a producer does not have any absolute advantage, Adam Smith's reasoning does not applicable.